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eXtyles-Related Standards and Technologies

The NLM DTDs (aka JATS and BITS)

The NLM Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD Suite, co-authored by Inera Inc.,  Mulberry Technologies, and NCBI, has been the de facto standard full-text DTD for scholarly publishing since its release in 2003. In April 2006, it was adopted as the archiving standard for electronic content by the British Library and the Library of Congress. The latest versions of the DTD are called JATS (for journal content) and BITS (for book content); JATS has been adopted as a NISO standard.

The Journal Publishing Tag Library provides interactive documentation on the latest JATS tag set. You can use this as a reference to look up XML tags and how to use them. Tag Libraries are also available for BITS 1.0 and BITS 2.0.

The NLM/JATS element index and the BITS element index show every element in each DTD’s tag set, the content model for that element, and its associated attributes for each version of the DTD. As well as showing how elements and their attributes have changed over time, the element index is a quick and easy way to learn how and where any element can be used.

While the NLM DTDs and Tag Library provide useful information on what you can do within the rules of JATS and BITS, JATS 4 Reuse (JATS4R) helps you determine what you should do by providing recommendations and best practice guidelines. The mission of JATS4R is to establish the recommendations for good JATS XML so that organizations who follow the recommendations produce predictable and reusable XML, making your content more accessible. Check out the JATS4R website for more information and to see whether your organization would like to participate in this initiative!

For a more general overview of XML publishing workflows, the Chicago Manual of Style includes a helpful Appendix on Production and Digital Technology. See Figure A.5 for a useful overview of XML publishing workflows.


In October 2017, NISO published the NISO Standards Tag Set (STS), ANSI/NISO Z39.102-2017, a specific tag set designed for standards publishing. The ISOSTS DTD, a JATS-based tag set developed by the International Standards Organization, formed the basis for this new standards DTD. 

Co-chaired by Inera CEO Bruce Rosenblum and Robert Wheeler, Director of Publishing Technology at ASME, the 40-member international NISO STS Working Group worked for 2 years to develop this “standard for standards,” aligned with JATS and designed to promote interoperability and increase options for co-publication and distribution of standards (read more). The standard then underwent a public comment period, revisions, and votes by the STS Working Group, the NISO CCM Topic Committee, and the NISO membership. (Read more here, here, and here.)

This site hosts the non-normative materials for the STS standard, including enhanced documentation and the actual schema files.

This site has the slide presentations from a one-day symposium that NISO hosted in April 2017 about XML for standards publishers. Almost 100 people attended this event at the Library of Congress. A second symposium was held in October 2017 in Geneva.

A clear and concise summary of the STS project was published in ASTM Standardization News, available below:


The Crossref XML Schema was developed for deposit of metadata for journals, books, conference proceedings, reports, working papers, standards, and databases.


ORCID is “an open, non-profit, community-based effort to provide a registry of unique researcher identifiers and a transparent method of linking research activities and outputs to these identifiers” ( ). Many partners in the scholarly research endeavor have been quick to show support for the initiative, including individual researchers, research organizations, research funders, professional and learned societies, publishers, and abstracting and indexing organizations.

With the launch of JATS 1.0, the latest version of what was previously the NLM DTD, there is now support for contributor IDs in a widely adopted and supported XML format.

ORCIDs are typically collected from authors in online submission systems and made available to publishers or their suppliers in XML transmittal files. However, publishers rely on the author list in the submitted manuscript (usually a Word file) as the authoritative author list. At some point in the workflow, the authors’ names and ORCIDs must be synchronized between the transmittal and the Word manuscript so they can be accurately included in the final XML file. The eXtyles ORCID Integration Suite automatically and accurately synchronizes and merges author names and ORCIDs from transmittal and Word files into the final XML as part of the eXtyles workflow.

Click here to read an overview of the current opportunities and challenges ORCID presents for publishers of scholarly content.

Author Names

The Council of Science Editors (CSE) has published several illuminating articles on international naming conventions to guide editors and others in using non-English personal names from around the world: