eXtyles was designed to standardize and streamline Word documents and, by extension, publishing workflows. However, each publisher, publication, and workflow is unique, and eXtyles was also designed to be a flexible solution, molded to each customer’s editorial style, production requirements, and publishing goals.
Below are synopses of some (but by no means all!) typical eXtyles workflows.
A life science journal does all copyediting in-house and supplies edited Word documents to their vendors for typesetting, conversion to XML, and online hosting. The editorial director sought out eXtyles primarily for its bibliographic reference tools, as their copyeditors estimated that they spent at least 20% of their time editing references to style and performing manual online searches to fix incomplete or incorrect references. Because their journal uses a numbered (Vancouver) reference citation style, the editors were also enthusiastic about the Convert/Clean Numbered Citations feature (which will convert an incorrect numbered citation style, such as numbers in square brackets, to their preferred style, which is superscript numbers) and the Citation Renumbering feature, which automates the time-consuming and error-prone process of renumbering out-of-sequence reference citations. After reviewing the optional eXtyles modules, they also decided to include the Auto-Redact feature, a large library of find-and-replace rules customized to change common terms, phrases, units, and symbols to their preferred editorial style.
eXtyles could be fully customized to accommodate the journal’s unique editorial style, and they were able to include any premium features they wanted (such as Auto-Redact) and leave out features they didn’t need, or might want to add later (such as a validating XML export filter).
A two-year-old, online-only, open-access journal has just been accepted into PubMed Central (PMC). Their content volume is low (though they anticipate it will expand over time) and their staff is small. They do minimal copyediting and convert to PDF directly from Word. They require a solution for the creation of high-quality, PMC-compliant NLM DTD XML that will also facilitate the creation of full-text HTML of their content. They opt to license eXtyles NLM instead of contracting with an off-shore vendor for two reasons. First, an eXtyles solution enables them to better control their costs as they begin to publish more articles and create new journals. Second, the consistent accuracy of the XML produced by eXtyles eliminates the need for creating in-house QA processes and tools, a necessary step when working with outside converters whose XML output may fluctuate in quality.
Though the publisher could have licensed a custom version of eXtyles to address their needs, they did not have stringent editorial requirements and were primarily concerned with being able to submit NLM XML to PMC as quickly as possible. eXtyles NLM provided all the tools they needed, was the most cost-effective solution for a publisher of their size, and could be implemented within about a month after signing the license.
A university press publishes 15 journals and about 150 books per year. They edit and revise all content in house, using Microsoft Word; they also typeset in house, using Adobe InDesign. Because of the broad adoption of e-readers, they require a workflow solution that will enable them to create EPUB and other formats for iPads, Kindles, and other e-readers and tablets as well as XML for repurposing of their content. The transition from print only to print and e-books has placed new burdens on their publishing operations and staff, so they also want their solution to improve their overall speed and efficiency.
A custom eXtyles solution allows this university press to reduce copyediting time by implementing customized features such as Auto-Redact and Bibliographic Reference Processing. Because their books use multiple standard styles, they are able to incorporate several eXtyles templates to accommodate them (e.g., American spelling and Chicago-style references for one book; British spelling and APA-style references for another book). eXtyles can also produce high-quality XML to facilitate the transition to ePub and future repurposing of their content. However, the XML exported from Word via eXtyles cannot be imported directly into InDesign, their preferred in-house typesetting system. The press therefore also opts to license Typefi, a software solution that imports XML into InDesign and fully automates page layout according to a customized template. The process of export to XML and import into InDesign takes a matter of minutes and can be repeated through correction cycles, with any manual tweaking of the layout (if needed) completed when the content has been finalized. The content of the final XML and PDF files is identical, and ePub and other e-book formats can be exported directly from Typefi. The automation provided by eXtyles and Typefi allows the press to keep its operations in house, to maintain its high quality, and to produce more content in a wider variety of formats without significant increases in staff.
A supplier provides end-to-end services to its publishing clients, from editing to page composition to XML conversion. They decide to implement a customizable and expandable version of eXtyles with a full suite of optional modules, which enables them to offer a great deal of added value to their customers while also accommodating multiple publication types and editorial styles. Because of the high volume of content processed by their organization, they wish to build enhanced automation into their operations.
eXtyles is a plug-in to Microsoft Word that typically runs on an individual desktop, and each step in the process is triggered by the user. Though the time to run a 20-page document through eXtyles is usually 5 to 15 minutes, this publishing supplier wanted to reduce this processing time by flowing more content through eXtyles in a less hands-on fashion. eXtyles SI extends Word on a Windows server by providing an XML interface to automate any eXtyles function that does not require user interaction, allowing for unattended batch processing of Microsoft Word files. The two eXtyles steps that do require user interaction — metadata capture in the Document Information dialog and structuring of the document through the application of paragraph styles — are included, along with Cleanup, in a scaled-back version of the tool known as eXtyles Lite. This easy-to-use tool allows for efficient document preparation; after running a file through eXtyles Lite, the remaining steps, from Auto-Redact through XML export, can be run in a fully automated fashion, with complete logging functions that allow server processes to respond automatically to status messages reported by eXtyles SI.
The eXtyles Document Information dialog captures the document metadata. For most publishers, this dialog is customized to include metadata fields relevant to their content (e.g., volume and issue numbers for journal publishers, ISBNs for book publishers, etc.). For customers who use eXtyles as an XML solution, this metadata is included in the exported XML.
The eXtyles Cleanup feature removes extraneous formatting from Word documents, from simple errors, such as multiple spaces, to more complex issues, such as fielded text or character styles, which can cause problems during the editorial and composition stages.
The eXtyles Paragraph Styling palette is a sophisticated tool for applying structure to Word documents. Styles on the palette are arranged contextually, according to where they appear in your content, and can be applied with the mouse or the keyboard. Certain document elements such as bibliographic references and regular body paragraphs are automatically identified and styled.
Auto-Redact is a large library of find-and-replace rules that can be configured to output any editorial style. Preferred spelling, abbreviation, usage, and formatting of common terms can be enforced with a single mouse click. Inera’s library includes over 2000 rules; custom rules can also be created, and customers can be trained to write their own.
Using heuristic processing, eXtyles is able to identify the elements of a journal reference in a Word file — author surname, author initial, title, year, and so on — and then rearrange these elements according to a preferred editorial style. This automatic copyediting is accomplished regardless of the style (or lack thereof) used by the author. Semantic identification of reference elements also enables the automatic granular tagging of references during the eXtyles XML export.
The eXtyles Book Reference Processing module extends the automatic copyediting and tagging of bibliographic references — initially developed for references to journals — to references to books and book chapters.
Duplicate Reference Checking warns users when two references with identical or near-identical content appear in a single reference list. It catches duplicates even when the formatting or order of elements in the two references differs, and it is especially useful for review articles with hundreds of references.
PubMed Reference Checking validates references against the online PubMed database, inserts a link at the end of each reference to its corresponding PubMed entry, and provides feedback on the accuracy of certain reference elements. This module is particularly useful to life science publishers.
PubMed Reference Correction extends the PubMed Reference Checking tool by correcting missing or erroneous elements in a reference in Word with data retrieved from PubMed. This tool also provides warnings when significant discrepancies between the author-submitted reference and the PubMed record are found. This module is particularly useful to life science publishers.
CrossRef Reference Checking validates references against the online CrossRef database, inserts a DOI at the end of each linked reference, and provides feedback on the accuracy of certain reference elements. The CrossRef database covers a broad range of disciplines and publication types.
CrossRef Reference Correction extends the CrossRef Reference Checking tool by correcting missing or erroneous elements in a reference in Word with data retrieved from CrossRef. This tool also provides warnings when significant discrepancies between the author-submitted reference and the CrossRef record are found.
Reference Sorting sorts Harvard-style (unnumbered) reference lists alphabetically and chronologically according to one of two standard sorting styles.
Harvard-to-Vancouver Citation Conversion transforms name-date (e.g., Smith, 2000) in-text reference citations to a preferred numbered citation style and numbers and reorders the corresponding references.
Convert/Clean Numbered Citations can convert one numbered (Vancouver) reference citation style to another (e.g., numbers in square brackets to superscript numbers); it also ensures that the punctuation and formatting of numbered citations conforms to the publisher’s style.
Citation Matching ensures that each bibliographic reference is cited in the document at least once and that each citation has a matching reference; it also checks callouts to objects (e.g., figure legends, tables, boxes, etc.).
Citation/Callout Order Checking warns the user if numbered reference citations are out of order; it also checks that objects such as figures and tables are cited sequentially.
Citation Renumbering renumbers out-of-order reference citations and their corresponding references according to the editorial style specified by the publisher.
URL Checking confirms that hyperlinks in a Word document resolve to a web page and provides warnings when URLs redirect or return an error message.
NCBI Linking identifies accession numbers and IDs in Word documents and queries them against NCBI databases such as GenBank, PDB, SwissProt, and so forth. Matched items are linked to their corresponding records on the NCBI website, and Word comments are inserted if an item has been changed, replaced, or removed. Appropriate markup can be exported to XML.
Footnote Renumbering automatically renumbers out-of-sequence Word footnotes that have been flattened to plain text by eXtyles on Document Activation. It is useful for book and other footnote-heavy content.
Metadata Export and Upload converts NLM DTD XML to either PubMed or CrossRef metadata XML and automatically deposits it. This feature requires an NLM DTD export filter.
All configurations of eXtyles include a well-formed XML export filter at no additional cost. This filter produces a tagged file that can be used as an input to typesetting, or customers can create scripts to transform it into valid XML. This well-formed XML is not created according to any DTD.
Inera is a co-author of the NLM DTD, the latest versions of which are now called JATS (for journal content) and BITS (for book content); JATS has been adopted as a NISO standard. eXtyles can be used to create full-text NLM DTD XML directly from Word with the click of a mouse and with no in-house XML expertise required.
Inera has configured XML export filters for a number of DTDs and schemas, both standard and proprietary. eXtyles can be used to create full-text, valid XML directly from Word with the click of a mouse and with no in-house XML expertise required.
NamesforLife (N4L) automatically identifies biological names in Word documents (currently, validly published names of Bacteria and Archaea at all ranks, from domain to subspecies, as well as names for which a published genome exists; other terminologies are in the works) and provides DOI-based links to the N4L service.
Conference Reference Parsing identifies and applies character styles/tags to elements of conference proceeding references; it also identifies titles in other non-journal, non-book references. Conference Reference Parsing enables automated linking of conference proceeding and other non-journal, non-book references to CrossRef. It does not copyedit such references to a preferred editorial style.